Banking on Green: A Look at How Green Infrastructure Can Save Municipalities Money and Provide Economic Benefits Community-Wide

Looks at the most cost-effective options for managing polluted runoff and protecting clean water, and finds that green infrastructure solutions save taxpayer money and provide community benefits by managing stor

Author: American Rivers, Water Environment Federation, American Society of Landscape Architects, and ECONorthwest

Date published: 2012

Community Based Public-Private Partnerships and Alternate Market-Based Tools for Integrated Green Stormwater Infrastructure

This guide provides guidance for local governments who wish to engage in community based public-private partnerships and alternative based tools for integrated green stormwater infrastructure.

Author: United States Environmental Protection Agency

Date published: 2015

Forging the Link

Illustrates the advantages of low-impact development (LID) in the economic terms of how municipal land use decisions are commonly made.

Author: University of New Hampshire Stormwater Center 

Date published: 2010

Green Infrastructure Design and Implementation Resources

Provides resources on the design, construction, and maintenance of GI features.

Author: US EPA

Date published: Ongoing

Green Infrastructure Modeling Tools

List of models that can be used to assess the costs and environmental outcomes associated with green infrastructure approaches.

Author: US EPA 

Date published: Ongoing

Green Infrastructure Webcast Series

Intended for public officials and practitioners beginning to implement green infrastructure, as well as for those looking to enhance established programs, this series has featured leading academics and professio

Author: US EPA 

Date published: Ongoing

Green Values National Stormwater Management Calculator

An interactive tool that can be used to compare the performance, costs, and benefits of green infrastructure compared to conventional stormwater practices.

Author: Center for Neighborhood Technology 

Date published: Ongoing

Holistically Analyzing the Benefits of Green Infrastructure: Guidance for local Governments

Changes in the regulatory landscape, coupled with budget-constrained environments, are driving local governments to search for new or evolving strategies and investments that deliver more value than conventional

Author: University of Maryland, Environmental Finance Center

Date published: 2017

Integrating Valuation Methods to Recognize Green Infrastructure's Multiple Benefits 

Reviews current methods, tools and case studies of valuation of the economic and social benefits produced by green infrastructure practices, particularly in urban settings.

Author: Center for Neighborhood Technology 

Date published: 2010

Landscape Performance Series

A collection of existing resources that show landscape performance using sustainable practices, including LID and Green Infrastructure.

Author: Landscape Architecture Foundation 

Date published: Ongoing

Measuring Effectiveness of Best Management Practices 

This 12 page informational report discusses the Chesapeake Bay's degrading health, and the actions that are (can be) taken by The Chesapeake and Atlantic Coastal Bays Trust Fund recipients to improve watershed h

Author: Chesapeake and Atlantic Coastal Bays Trust Fund

Date published: Undated

Overcoming Barriers to Green Infrastructure

Identifies common barriers to green infrastructure that arise throughout the development process, from design to installation, and suggests strategies to overcome them.

Author: US EPA

Date published: Ongoing

Promoting Green Infrastructure: Strategies, Case Studies and Resources

Reviews financial, regulatory, and incentive-based strategies for promoting the use of green infrastructure to manage stormwater.

Author: Environmental Finance Center Network

Date published: 2012

Rooftops to Rivers II

Update to NRDC's seminal 2006 publication. Profiles 14 geographically diverse cities that are all leaders in employing green infrastructure solutions to address stormwater challenges.

Author: Natural Resources Defense Council 

Date published: 2013

Stormwater Management: Reducing Water Quantity and Improving Water Quality

This resource discusses the importance of managing stormwater runoff, and the problems encountered with high levels of impervious surfaces.

Author: Chesapeake and Atlantic Coastal Bays Trust Fund

Date published: Undated

The Value of Green Infrastructure: A Guide to Recognizing its Economic, Environmental, and Social Benefits 

Cumulatively assesses the multiple benefits of low-impact development (LID) and green infrastructure (GI) as a municipal or private investment.

Author: Center for Neighborhood Technology, American Rivers 

Date published: 2010

US EPA Green Infrastructure website

Comprehensive source for tools and resources related to green infrastructure design, implementation, maintenance, funding, and modeling.

Author: US EPA

Date published: Ongoing

Using Rainwater to Grow Livable Communities: Sustainable Stormwater Best Management Practices 

Provides resources for effective communication and implementation of green infrastructure concepts, as well as case studies that examine successful efforts in cities across the United States. 

Author: Water Environment Research Foundation 

Date published: Ongoing

Water Quality Scorecard: Incorporating Green Infrastructure Practices at the Municipal, Neighborhood, and Site Scales

A program evaluation tool that local governments can use to collaboratively identify the barriers to green infrastructure in local codes and ordinances.

Author: US EPA

Date published: 2009

21st Century Land Development Code

A complete planning and law model code integrating traditional Euclidean zoning with green codes, new urbanism, and smart growth.

Author: American Planning Association

Date published: 2008

Adapting a Subdivision Ordinance to Meet Your Community's Water Quality Goals

Provides sample subdivision ordinance language addressing street design and impervious surface, lot layout, and green infrastructure. 

Author: Northland Nonpoint Education for Municipal Officials (NEMO)

Date published: Undated

Benefits of a Green Street website

This EPA website describes the benefits of green streets and links to relevant resources.

Author: US EPA

Date published: Ongoing

Better Site Design Code and Ordinance Worksheet

Allows users to enter data to see how the local development rules in their community stack up against the model development principles outlined in CWP's Better Site Design Handbook.

Author: Center for Watershed Protection

Date published: 1998

Blackberry Creek Watershed Zoning Code Analysis and Ordinance Language Recommendations

Provides suggested changes to subdivision and zoning codes for municipalities and counties in the Blackberry Creek watershed that can be used as a model for other watersheds. 

Author: Conservation Design Forum

Date published: 2004

Design Principles for Stormwater Management on Compacted, Contaminated Soils in Dense Urban Areas

Details design considerations for managing stormwater on compacted soils and provides sources for additional information. 

Author: US EPA

Date published: 2008

Economics and LID Practices Fact Sheet 

Two-page fact sheet summarizing the economic benefits associated with LID; provides three short case studies. 

Author: UNH Stormwater Center 

Date published: Undated

Federal Regulatory Programs: MS4s, CSOs, and TMDLs

Part of EPA’s GI clearinghouse, this website contains a comprehensive list of resources and discussions on integrating green infrastructure into federal regulatory programs for municipal separate storm sewer sys

Author: US EPA

Date published: Ongoing

Flood Loss Avoidance Benefits of Green Infrastructure for Stormwater Management

Analyzes and quantifies the potential flood loss avoidance impacts of distributed stormwater control using green infrastructure and low impact development.

Author: Atkins, US EPA

Date published: 2015

Green Infrastructure and Health Guide

This guide helps local government, communities, and health care organizations connect green infrastructure and public health in innovative ways.

Author: Willamette Partnership and Oregon Public Health Institute

Date published: 2018

Green Infrastructure and the Sustainable Communities Initiative

Shares the green infrastructure best practices and outputs of communities and regions around the country that received Sustainable Communities Initiatives grants from a federal HUD-EPA-DOT partnership.

Author: US Department of Housing and Urban Development

Date published: 2015

Green Infrastructure Case Studies: Municipal Policies for Managing Stormwater with Green Infrastructure 

Examines the policies adopted by 12 local governments that have successfully promoted green infrastructure, as well as the policy drivers and policy outcomes.

Author: US EPA 

Date published: 2010

Green Infrastructure Map

This map provides examples of green infrastructure financing stories from diverse communities across the country showcased in an interesting and accessible way.

Author: Environmental Finance Center

Date published: 2014

Green Infrastructure Opportunities that Arise During Municipal Operations

This document provides local government officials and municipal program managers in small to midsize communities with approaches to incorporate green infrastructure components into work they are doing in public spaces.

Author: United States Environmental Protection Agency

Date published: 2015

Green Infrastructure Resource Directory

Directory of helpful resources related to green infrastructure: economics and cost/benefit; policy guidance; codes and ordinances; regulatory programs; design and implementation; operations and maintenance, perf

Author: New England Environmental Finance Center

Date published: 2012

Green Stormwater Operations and Maintenance Manual

Provides a summary of routine maintenance activities for rain gardens, vegetated swales, and permeable pavements.

Author: Seattle Public Utilities

Date published: 2009

Growing Greener Model Ordinance Version 2.0

This model ordinance, consisting of model language for both zoning and subdivision and land development ordinances, provides regulations that can be added to typical, existing ordinances to implement the princip

Author: Natural Lands Trust

Date published: Undated

Handbook for Developing Watershed Plans to Restore and Protect Our Waters

This document provides guidance and information for developing watershed based plans to improve and protect water quality.

Author: United States Environmental Protection Agency

Date published: 2008

International Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMP) Database 

Summarizes the findings of more than 400 BMP studies. Users of the website can perform custom queries or download technical papers summarizing performance results.

Author: International Stormwater BMP Database Project

Date published: Ongoing

Issue Brief: Auditing Your Town’s Development Code for Barriers to Sustainable Water Management

This issue brief informs local officials about how development regulations in their community affect local water resources.  Municipal development codes control the built environment and can have a great influence on ways in which water is transported, collected or absorbed.

Author: Environmental Finance Center Network

Date published: 2013

Kentucky Wet Growth Tools for Sustainable Development: A Handbook on Land Use and Water for Kentucky Communities

Provides extensive tools and resources for local communities to achieve "wet growth" -- land use and development that is sustainable with respect to water.

Author: Center for Land Use and Environmental Responsibility, University of Louisville 

Date published: 2009

Managing Wet Weather with Green Infrastructure: Municipal Handbook

Provides local governments with a step-by-step guide to growing green infrastructure in their communities.

Author: US EPA

Date published: 2008

National Pollutant Removal Performance Database for Stormwater Treatment Practices

Summarizes the results of more than 150 pollutant removal studies.

Author: Center for Watershed Protection

Date published: 2000

NOAA Green Infrastructure Tools website

Offered by NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS), this site includes green infrastructure resources organized into the categories of information, data, guidance and training.

Author: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)

Date published: Ongoing

One Drop: Why We Need Green Infrastructure

Two-minute animation illustrating the benefits of green infrastructure.

Author: American Rivers

Date published: 2012

Performance of Green Infrastructure

Website with links to research on the performance of green infrastructure practices including green roofs, permeable pavements, rainwater harvesting, rain gardens and planter boxes, bioswales, urban tree canopie

Author: US EPA

Date published: Ongoing

Rebuilding America: APA National Infrastructure Investment Task Force Report 

Section 3, Green Infrastructure, provides guidance to planners on implementing green infrastructure. Includes examples, case studies, and references for more information. 

Author: American Planning Association

Date published: 2010

Reducing Stormwater Costs through Low Impact Development (LID) Strategies and Practices 

Contains 17 case studies that examine the economic viability of green infrastructure practices compared to traditional stormwater management design practices.

Author: US EPA

Date published: 2007

Reevaluating Stormwater: The Nine Mile Run Model for Restorative Development 

Presents a model for resolving a history of chronic sewer overflows into the public streets, parks, and waters of the Pittsburgh region, while simultaneously restoring and revitalizing the region's urban communi

Author: Rocky Mountain Institute

Date published: 1999

Regular Inspection and Maintenance Guidance for Bioretention Systems/Tree Filters 

Checklist of inspection and maintenance activities for bioretention systems and tree filters and a checklist for inspection. 

Author: University of New Hampshire Stormwater Center 

Date published: 2011

Regular Inspection and Maintenance Guidance for Porous Pavements 

Checklist of inspection and maintenance activities for porous pavements and a checklist for inspection. 

Author: University of New Hampshire Stormwater Center 

Date published: 2011

Rooftops to Rivers

Seminal policy guide for decision-makers looking to implement green strategies for stormwater management.

Author: Natural Resources Defense Council 

Date published: 2006

Runoff Reduction Method Technical Memo – Appendix F: BMP Research Summary Table 

Presents the results of more than 100 papers in tabular form.

Author: Center for Watershed Protection

Date published: 2008

SmartCodes: Model Land Development Regulations

A guide to the development of model smart growth ordinances, including models that may be adapted by local governments to implement special planning policies for multimodal transportation, infill development, af

Author: American Planning Association

Date published: 2009

Soak Up the Rain: Permeable Pavement

Website with information and examples on using permeable pavement to manage stormwater.  Includes local resources for several New England states.

Author: US EPA

Date published: Ongoing

Stormwater Best Management Practice: Bioswales

Describes bioswales as a stormwater best management practice and provides guidance on design and maintenance.

Author: USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service

Date published: 2005

Stormwater Best Management Practice: Constructed Treatment Wetlands

Describes constructed wetlands as a best management practices for treating stormwater and improving water quality.

Author: US EPA

Date published: 2004

Stormwater Best Management Practice: Control Stormwater Runoff with Trees

Describes how trees can be used to manage stormwater.

Author: Center for Urban Forest Research, Pacific Southwest Research Station, USDA Forest Service

Date published: 2002

Stormwater Best Management Practice: Sand Filters

Describes sand filters as a stormwater best management practice and provides guidance on design, installation and maintenance.

Author: US EPA

Date published: 1999

Stormwater Financing Case Story: Scranton, PA

EFC worked with Scranton, PA to identify opportunities to implement green infrastructure practices in order to save money and reduce stormwater flows to the City's over-burdened system.

Author: University of Maryland Environmental Finance Center

Date published: 2013

Stormwater Financing Case Story: Warrington Township, PA

Warrington Township, PA passed a voter referendum in 2012 committing $3 million to open space protection.

Author: University of Maryland Environmental Finance Center

Date published: 2014

Stormwater Model Ordinance for NC Local Governments

Developed for Phase II stormwater regulations as implemented in North Carolina.

Author: University of North Carolina Environmental Finance Center

Date published: 2007

The Economic Value of Riparian Buffers in the Delaware River Basin

This report values losses in ecosystem services that may result from losing riparian forests and buffers. It promotes conservation of these systems as climate change and urbanization have threatened their utilization in the Delaware River Basin.

Author: ECONorthwest

Date published: 2018

The Economics of Low-Impact Development: A Literature Review 

Reviews methods for evaluating the financial benefit of green infrastructure compared to traditional "gray" stormwater mitigation practices. 

Author: ECONorthwest 

Date published: 2007

The Importance of Operation and Maintenance for the Long-Term Success of Green Infrastructure: A Review of Green Infrastructure O&M Practices in ARRA Clean Water State Revolving Fund Projects

Examines the O&M practices of 22 green infrastructure projects funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Clean Water State Revolving Fund.

Author: US EPA

Date published: 2013

Top Ten Green Infrastructure Issues in Plans and Codes: Common Problems and Tested Solutions

Slides from a webinar presentation about how to recognize and overcome barriers to GI / LID in local codes and ordinances.

Author: Tetra Tech

Date published: Undated

US EPA Sustainable Water Infrastructure website

Directory of useful information related to sustainable water infrastructure, including financing & pricing, water & energy efficiency, asset management, and effective utility management. 

Author: US EPA 

Date published: Ongoing

US EPA Watershed Academy website

Provides training and information on implementing watershed approaches.

Author: US EPA 

Date published: Ongoing

Using Smart Growth Techniques as Stormwater Best Management Practices 

Reviews nine common Smart Growth techniques and examines how these techniques can be adapted to prevent or manage stormwater runoff. 

Author: US EPA

Date published: 2005

Webinar: Using Local Codes to Cultivate Green Infrastructure and Foster Sustainable Stormwater Management 

Describes the interaction of zoning and building codes with water quality; presents several examples of code audits conducted in Illinois, Ohio, and Minnesota; and highlights the top 10 obstacles to green infras

Author: US EPA, Region 5 

Date published: 2011